Facatativá Archaeological Park

Facatativá Archaeological Park The Facatativá Archaeological Park also called Tunjo Stones mistakenly called Tunja Stones, Encircled Zipas, is a set of pictograms whose exact origin is unknown. Its age has not been determined either, but could date to approximately 12 000 years, located in the municipality of Facatativá, in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. The archaeological complex is in a state of deterioration very advanced and the majesty of the pictogrmas has been destroyed. The park houses one of the largest concentrations of pictographs in an urban area. Its age can reach 12,000 years. It is not possible to determine exactly the time of the pictographs, it is not possible to establish if they are muiscas or of the Herrera period. It is also not possible to verify if the different pictographs correspond to one or several eras. The Facatativá Archaeological Park was created in 1946 following an expropriation process initiated by the education minister Germán Arciniegas, which only took place until 1969. His administration was handed over to the National Ethnological Institute (later Instituto Colombiano de Antropología y Historia ICANH) At the same time, it was declared an Archaeological Park, then transferred to the Colombian Institute of Culture (Colcultura), which has been lending it to the CAR Regional Autonomous Corporation since 1972. During all these years the terrain, stones and pictographs have suffered serious deterioration. The park offers a trail that traverses the most important pictographs, despite the marked deterioration of which they have been victims during the last 40 years. The rocks were spiritual place of Muiscas, that inhabited in the area to the arrival of the Spaniards. Some stones contain rock paintings whose significance has been lost since the historical references have been diluted with time. Its meaning is presumed according to universal symbols, but in the specific case of the park they are only speculations. Due to administrative negligence, there has never been a protection policy for this archaeological jewel and most of these deteriorated pictographs still have hope of resurrection, but this is a long and costly process that the administration does not seem to want to assume. The vandalism of the park's pictograms has been the main and most aggressive cause of deterioration. Natural sources, although they have an effect on their conservation, do not have such a strong effect on the reading of the sets, since they have been exposed to them throughout their history and only 60 years ago they have suffered accelerated deterioration. The pictograms are red, except for some found in the stone 16 after the restoration of the year 2004 white, it is not ruled out that there are more, or other colors in the other stones. The paint is opaque and consistent, it is possible that the application technique is dry, pigments can be placed as mineral substances (iron oxides, manganese cinnabar, coal and clays), animals (blood, eggs, fat) or vegetables (fats , Colorants) without organic binders, as has been concluded with previous studies carried out on other highland pictographs. However the particular technique can be confirmed or discarded after laboratory tests. Some paintings have poorly defined but stable edges, this is possibly due to a washing of the pictograms moments after being made. Although this alteration impairs the reading of some pictographs, it does not constitute a serious deterioration. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parque_...

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